Environmental Surveillance is built on the understanding that a healthy environment is an indicator of healthy people & community. This encompasses the continuous, systemic collection, and analysis of samples involved in pathogen transmissions such as air, water, soil or other biotas. This health-related data can inform the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice.

The Alliance's current efforts are focused on wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), which analyses wastewater including sewage and stormwater drainage to determine the consumption of or exposure to pathogens in a population.